It occurs immediately after birth due to abnormal respiratory transition during the adaptation from foetal to neonatal life. A number of rapid physiological changes are required during this period to replace alveolar fluid by air, establish regular spontaneous breathing, and adapt blood flow. Alterations in genes related to surfactant metabolism are the most frequent hereditary cause for IRDS in full-term newborns.

Infant respiratory distress syndrome panel [15 genes]
ABCA3 ATP11A CHPT1 CSF2RA CSF2RB
FOXF1 ITGA3 LPCAT1 NKX2-1 PCYT1B
SFTPA1 SFTPA2 SFTPB SFTPC SFTPD